What does a newborn baby need in the first month of life?

The development of a child's intelligence begins from birth. The child is already able to hear, see, experience taste and olfactory sensations. In this way, the baby receives information up to two months, and later learns to feel and distinguish between integral objects, mainly people. The baby perks up at the sight of his mother or a familiar person, or when he hears a familiar voice.

Educational games for a newborn in the 2nd month of life

The baby's gaze is more focused. He can carefully observe a moving object one step away from him. He is also sensitive to sounds and tries to determine where they come from .

It is very interesting that 2 months. The baby is already building simple cause-and-effect relationships . For example, he understands that someone is coming to his voice.

  • Controlling arms and legs Dress your baby in plain clothes with bright cuffs sewn on, or put on funny socks. To see these objects, the baby will have to control his arms and legs. For variety, you can change your socks or put them on only one side.
  • Puppet theater Get the child interested, and then move the hand puppet so that the child has time to watch it.
  • Amazing squeak Let the baby squeeze the squeaking toy in his fist, then he will feel his hands better.
  • Plate doll Draw a kind and sad face on a paper plate. Then turn it so that the baby can see different sides. Soon the baby will enjoy the cheerful image and even talk to it.
  • Up and down Throw soft pompoms up so that they touch the child when they fall. At the same time, warn about its fall. After some time, the baby will expect the pompom, adapting to your words and intonation.
  • Young cyclist Place your baby on a safe surface, take him by the feet and make the movements of a cyclist with his legs.
  • Reach with your foot. Attach objects of different textures or sounds above the crib. Make sure your baby can reach them with his foot. As a result of this game, the baby will begin to distinguish between soft and hard objects, quiet and loud, smooth and embossed.

Don't expect results

Inspired by the great idea of ​​​​the early development of almost one-year-old Dasha, I began to buy “developmental aids”: puzzles for the little ones (2-4 elements each), pyramids, large mosaics, cut-out pictures, as well as frames and inserts.

The latter are plywood or cardboard boards (tablets) with holes or recesses of different shapes and sizes. The goal of the game is to match the inserts to the corresponding holes. Classic frames according to the Montessori method - with geometric shapes. But now there are a huge number of other themed boards on sale (animals, fruits, colors, etc.) - with or without a backing (that is, a drawing inside as a hint).

We also have educational books on various topics in our house (for example, “Opposites”, “At the Zoo”, “Colors and Shapes”, “Exploring Myself”). Then it was time for the “photo albums”.

“Photo albums” is a conventional name. In fact, instead of photographs, the enthusiastic mother inserts into the pockets pictures depicting various objects, inhabitants of the animal world, etc. Next to it is a signature, preferably written “in order” - in the spirit of N. Zaitsev’s technique. Albums should be thematic (“vegetables”, “clothing”, “furniture”, “musical instruments”, “road signs”, “dog breeds” and so on). This is such a wonderful way to introduce your baby to the world around him.

I took the pictures and inscriptions for them from L. Danilova’s book “How to Give a Child Encyclopedic Knowledge.” Nowadays there are many special sets of pictures on sale, organized according to certain topics.

And now everything was ready for classes. But... life made its own adjustments. The child was absolutely uninterested in the pictures his mother slipped into his hands. No, they are interesting, but for about three seconds. Then attention switched to a scattering of puzzle links on the carpet, a moment later - to colorful frames and inserts, then to slobbery bagels from the pyramid... Then it was all thrown away, and the child crawled off to wander around the apartment. I ran after her with albums: “Look, look, this is a toucan, and this is a burbot fish”... To no avail. Dasha was equally indifferent to a toucan, a burbot, a button accordion and an accordion.

Anxiety began to flutter inside me. But then, fortunately, the experience of one mother caught my eye. She said that her boy became addicted to the same albums only at 1 year and 3 months. I realized that all was not lost, and, remembering the specialists’ instructions not to force events, I began to wait.

What else were we doing at that moment? We tried to build towers from cubes: I built them, and Dasha broke them. It’s okay, I reassured myself, this is the period now - destruction. The time for creation lies ahead. Our ball games, frames and inserts, rhymes, nursery rhymes, songs - all of this was somehow ... awkward. I didn’t see even a spark of reaction to my efforts in Dasha.

I have well learned the warnings “don’t raise a genius,” “don’t chase records,” “don’t burden your child.” But the attitude “don’t expect a reaction or result” somehow passed me by. And only then, having grown a little wiser, I realized that there was no need to wait - no interest, no response, no that the baby would please his mother with his successes. You don’t need to expect anything from your child at all! Not only during his early childhood - never at all.

And I need to get rid of the thoughts that I am supposedly engaged in the “early development” of my child, how great it is, what a great fellow I am. Such activities should not have any hidden or obvious subtext, nor any ambitious goals, except for one - the pleasure of spending time together. All maternal impulses should come from the heart, and not because “it’s necessary”, “useful” and “right”.

Educational games for a three month old baby

At this age, the baby's reactions become more meaningful. For example, you can already distinguish several types of laughter and crying. The child can already recognize your voice, face and smell . He willingly interacts with close relatives and even responds with a touching coo .

As for physical development, a 3-month-old baby has better control over his hands, knows how to grab the right toy and can learn to clap his hands . He is no longer so tired of holding his head, he turns over on his side and rises on his elbows.

  • Reliable sandbox Place some oatmeal in a large container and place an oilcloth under the bowl. Holding your baby, show how pleasant it is to pass flour through your fingers. You can give him small containers to pour into.
  • Find a toy! Show your baby a bright toy. When he becomes interested in it and wants to take it, cover the toy with a scarf or napkin. Show your baby how to “release” the toy by pulling the end of the napkin.
  • Finding the ball Roll a bright ball at a distance from the baby. Wait for him to notice it and want to crawl towards it. In this way he will learn to coordinate his movements.

What are the theories of child development?

There are many theories explaining the process of child development. The humanistic concept of A. Maslow is widespread, according to which a person is influenced by his needs and motivation. Thanks to this, child development occurs. A person gradually satisfies his needs for security, love, self-realization and other areas of society, striving for independence and spiritual growth.

E. Erikson's psychoanalytic theory focuses on emotions and relationships. According to it, the child gradually moves from feelings of trust and distrust in the world to a feeling of fullness of life, overcoming various age and behavioral stages.

S. Freud tried to explain the development of children's intelligence. According to his theory, the child goes through several stages (from oral to genital). During each of them, he concentrates his attention on a specific area of ​​the body that brings him pleasure.

It is useful for parents to know the basic theories of child development to help their child grow into a well-rounded and healthy individual.

Educational games and activities for a 4 month old baby

At this age, the baby can roll over onto his back or tummy on his own . lifts his upper body well in different directions and tries to crawl . At this stage of development, it is important to help the baby understand the capabilities of his body and its sensation in space.

At this time , you can develop your ear for music by choosing different melodies, songs and sound toys. In addition, you may notice that the baby wants to actively communicate in “his own language.”

  • A plastic box with toys or water can keep a baby interested for a long time.
  • Paper games Take thin printer sheets or soft toilet paper and show your baby how to tear or crumple them. This develops fine motor skills well.
  • Blanket Fold the blanket in four and place the baby in the middle. Now rock the baby in different directions so that he can roll. This educational game for newborns will teach him to roll over quickly.

How to develop a newborn baby - the beginning

The neonatal period is considered to be the stage from birth to one month. This is a period of adaptation. The baby adapts to life in the external environment, and the parents adapt to the fact that their lives have turned 180 degrees. At this time, the baby’s development is actively underway, both physical and psycho-emotional. To know how to competently develop a newborn baby up to 1 month, you should proceed from his natural abilities, which any healthy baby has.

It would also not be amiss to say that throughout the first year, and especially in the first month, the harmonious development of a newborn will directly depend on his physical condition. In other words, from his weight gain. And this can be achieved if breastfeeding is properly organized and a clear daily routine for the newborn is established by month in the period from 0 to 3.

The regime is especially needed for those who have twins. We have already written a lot about “regime moments” in relation to both one child and twins.

Let's say it again: if the diet, sleep and wakefulness are adjusted, it will be much easier for the baby to develop.

Development of a 5 month old child in play

This month, the baby is good at catching changes in intonation and distinguishing between “friends” and “strangers” . He already has some accumulated information experience , which facilitates developmental activities from birth.

Recently you taught your baby to focus his eyes on one toy, and now he can already choose the desired item . Now you can teach your baby to manipulate objects so that he can keep himself occupied in the future.

  • Encouraging crawling Place a musical top not far from the baby, to which you have to crawl. The pleasant sound and bright appearance of the toy motivate the baby to crawl.
  • Pull the ribbon! Tie a ribbon or string to a bright, attractive toy. Place the toy away from the baby lying on his tummy, and give the end of the string or ribbon to his hands. Show your child how to pull the ribbon to make the toy come closer. Please note that ribbon and rope should not be left for the child to play with when you are not in the room with him!
  • Hide and seek Cover the baby with a diaper, then call and open the baby's face. This way you will accustom him to your name. You can also do this with your loved ones so that the baby himself tries to call you or your friends.

Possible problems for a newborn

The most common problems faced by children at 1 month old include:

  1. Physiological weight loss. This is caused by adaptive processes. A loss of 10% of birth weight is considered normal. By the second week of life, the newborn begins to gain weight.
  2. Dry skin. At birth, children are given a special lubricant that facilitates the process of passage through the birth canal. After a few days, almost nothing remains of the lubricant. For this reason, the skin may begin to peel off; the problem can be solved by wiping it with vegetable oil.
  3. Rash. It appears in the first few days after birth. It goes away on its own, but to speed up the process, you can wash the child in baths with the addition of chamomile or calendula.
  4. Hormonal crisis. It occurs due to the removal of remnants of mother’s hormones from the child’s body. Symptoms: swelling of the mammary glands, slight discharge. The crisis will pass on its own, but it is important to maintain careful hygiene.
  5. Conjunctivitis. Appears as a result of the fact that the child “transitioned” from the sterile uterus into an atmosphere where there are pathogenic microorganisms and bacteria. To quickly deal with the problem, you need to carefully wipe the newborn’s eyes with a cotton swab dipped in chamomile.
  6. Miliaria is a rash in the armpits, between the folds. The main reasons for the appearance are poor hygiene or overheating. Quite often the rash goes away on its own, but to speed up the process, you can wipe the newborn with chamomile decoction.
  7. Thrush. Formed in the oral cavity. Looks like white pieces on the palate, tongue, cheeks. This pathology should be treated by a doctor - if proper therapy is not given, this can lead to complications.
  8. Constipation. Most often, bottle-fed children encounter it.
  9. Colic. Fermentation processes take place in the body of a newborn, which brings the child a lot of unpleasant sensations. Another cause of colic is that the baby swallows too much air during feeding. To avoid this, after feeding, children are placed in a “column”. When colic appears, you should not immediately give your child any medications - it is better to simply carry him in your arms, stroke him, and calm him down. A warm bath with soothing herbs also promotes relaxation.
  10. Diaper rash. The reasons for their appearance are the same as for prickly heat. To avoid this problem, be sure to wash the folds with herbal decoctions. It is also worth opening the baby more often and removing the diaper so that the skin can “breathe.” Additionally, you can use baby powder.
  11. Jaundice. A common problem in children, which is caused by the destruction of excess red blood cells. However, the liver of young children cannot yet cope with this problem, which leads to the appearance of yellow pigment. Normally, jaundice increases during the first 5 days and subsides over the next 14 days.

If your child has a fever, is restless, is not eating or sleeping well, this should be a reason to see a doctor.

Educational games for babies in the 6th month of life

At 6 months, the baby responds to his name and needs constant communication. He enjoys learning educational games like boxes that need to be closed or folding pyramids.

The child crawls confidently , possibly sits up independently, and controls both arms well . At this stage, adults rarely have the question of how to play with a newborn baby, because the baby comes up with entertainment on his own . Your task is only to support his attempts at independent development.

  • Different sounds Fill 2 plastic bottles with different volumes of water. The child will tap them with a spoon and notice the difference in sound.
  • Obstacle course Make crawling more difficult with bolsters and pillows. Place them on the path to your favorite toy.
  • Suggestion of choice Let the baby hold a toy in each hand. At this point, offer him a third one. He will, of course, drop the rest, but will gradually begin to make a “choice” decision.

Development of a newborn baby up to a month - body control

The movements of a newborn up to a month are very chaotic. And the first thing that begins to happen is that the neck muscles gradually become stronger. This can be encouraged.

In order for the baby to begin to slowly hold his head up, he should be placed on his stomach for a couple of minutes from the very first days (upon arrival from the hospital). It is most convenient to do this while swaddling. A prerequisite is that the surface is hard. Thanks to the hard surface, the baby's muscles will begin to tense.

If a baby is laid out on his tummy undressed for up to a month, he will take air baths several times a day - these are the first elements of hardening.

Thanks to such exercises, the development of a newborn child will proceed at a rapid pace, and the baby himself will quickly get stronger. And by the end of the first month, he will be able to lie on his stomach and hold his head on his own for a few seconds.

Child development methods: what do parents need to know?

The variety of methods allows parents to choose something suitable specifically for their child. Before you start training your baby, you need to familiarize yourself with all the options.

Glen Doman's method involves the development of children's thinking almost from birth. Parents need to make sure that all the toys, exercises, and cards that the child is engaged in improve his intellectual skills.

M. Lazarev’s method involves teaching a child from an early age with the help of music, bright colors and movement. The technique is guaranteed to stimulate the development of children's intelligence, and for its practical application there are special “beambaskets” - special kits.

The popular method of M. Montessori states that children only need to create an atmosphere for the development of mental abilities. According to the specialist’s theory, a child under three years of age learns faster and more efficiently.

What does the development of children's motor skills include?

The development of children's motor skills is closely related to the formation of the child's speech and intelligence, which ensures the proximity of the two parts of the brain. It is by the ability to control his hands that a child’s preparedness for school and learning information is often judged.

You need to take care of your child from infancy. The development of children's motor skills involves playing with beads, palms, and manipulating paper. You can give your child the opportunity to play with small grains or draw in the sand, always under adult supervision. Motor skills are developed by a classic palm massage.

The development of children's motor skills is stimulated by modeling, coloring, cutting and assembling puzzles. Hand abilities are improved by turning the pages of a book and screwing on lids.

Development of children's initiative

Independence is a quality that must be cultivated in a child from an early age. The main thing in this matter is to be patient and teach your baby gradually.

Children's upbringing and development should not begin with difficult assignments. Parents should teach their child independence with tasks that he can definitely perform. To begin with, you can ask to collect only part of the toys in a box or put on pants without the help of mom or dad. Gradually you need to complicate the tasks.

An important part of children's upbringing and development is parental support. If a child shows initiative and tries to cope with the issue on his own, there is no need to suppress this desire and provide help until it is asked.

Children's tongue twisters for speech development

You can use children's tongue twisters for speech development from one year of age, as soon as the baby learns to pronounce the first distinct syllables and full-fledged words. However, it is best to work with the child later, when he begins to clearly express his own thoughts.

The main condition that must be observed when choosing children's tongue twisters for speech development is fun. It is important to try to turn learning into a game, and choose phrases that are memorable and funny. Then it will be more interesting for the child to repeat them after mom or dad, and the learning process will not leave bad impressions.

To learn children's tongue twisters for speech development together with your baby, you should repeat the phrase several times, clearly pronouncing the words and sounds. You cannot immediately demand fast pronunciation from your child. It is best to use short rhymes to make them easier to remember. In order to have a good result - children's tongue twisters for speech development help to form the speech apparatus - you need to practice regularly, each time adding variety to the lessons so that the child does not lose interest.

What kind of process is reading?

Of course, this is a logical process.

Supporters of Glenn Doman's method will object, arguing that logic is not the basis for teaching the basics of reading.

One can argue with this.

The baby needs to add syllables from letters, and words from syllables.

Thinking, reasoning, making conclusions, translating words into images - in general, performing logical operations in the mind.

The conclusion is obvious: teaching reading before the age of 5 does not make sense, because the child is not ready for it yet. The optimal age is 7 years. However, the incredible reality puzzles parents! When entering 1st grade, a child is required to be able to read well.

What is the development of children's self-government?

Child self-government is the child’s ability to cope without outside help. It is necessary to form independence, because it is important for the development of children's thinking. A child who is able to learn and take care of himself with minimal help from adults simplifies both his and his parents’ lives, and the whole family gets more time for pleasant and fun activities together.

It is necessary to accustom your child to independently complete tasks gradually, however, from an early age. Let the children first collect toys in the room and get dressed with the help of their parents, but each time the help should decrease. It is important to explain to the child why it is necessary to maintain order and do something independently, and to praise him for taking the initiative.

Child upbringing and development is impossible without trust and freedom. If parents forbid a child to do basic things without help, he will not be able to become independent. It is important to gradually increase the scope of freedom and trust the child more in order to help him succeed.

Development of children's intelligence: rules

You can train your child’s mental abilities both at home and with a teacher. However, in any case, it is important to provide a feeling of support and a friendly atmosphere during classes.

The development of a child should take place in a playful way. There is no need to force your baby to study all day long—an hour daily is enough. To improve mental activity, it is recommended to solve logical problems with your child and guess riddles using your wits. Older children will probably be interested in puzzles and intellectual games.

What is early childhood development?

The development of children's intelligence must begin with the appearance of a baby in the home. The sooner parents start teaching their child, the easier it will be for him to learn in the future.

Early childhood development can begin in infancy - a child develops when adults communicate with him, becomes familiar with simple toys and objects, and responds emotionally to the behavior of his parents. It is these reactions that the baby lays a good foundation for a high level of intelligence in the future.

Early childhood development also involves activities with a child of preschool age, that is, from three to six years old. At this time, children begin to become truly interested in the world around them. They want to run, jump, explore and explore the world around them. They master speech, their habits are formed, their behavior becomes more conscious. Parents often try to stimulate children's creativity and development with additional activities, which they conduct at home or take the child to special clubs. This is an opportunity to engage in the development of a child comprehensively.

Psychologists, however, remind that there is no need to abruptly tear a child away from toys and accustom him to smart books. You need to develop your child’s mental abilities in a playful way, without requiring him to work hard.

What kinds of children's games are there to develop speech?

Children's games for speech development are an effective way to teach a child to speak clearly and correctly. Kids are eager to learn when they do it in a playful way. It is important for parents to diversify their children’s learning process as much as possible, to make it easier and more enjoyable.

You need to get your child interested before you start working on his oral skills. Parents can start children's speech development games by learning about animals. Mom or dad should teach the baby to imitate the sounds of various animals and ask them to repeat them from time to time. In this way, the child will be able to hone the pronunciation of individual syllables.

In special developmental literature and on the Internet you can find many poems that are useful for improving a child’s oral skills. They are easy to remember and help practice pronunciation of various sounds.

Children's games for speech development involve breathing exercises. It helps to master the sounds “sh”, “s”, “e” and some others.

For all the advantages, there are quite a lot of disadvantages

  1. Let's say you taught your child to read at 3-4 years old. What's next? The child is unlikely to read books on his own. There is still a lot of time before entering school, and in order to fully master it, any skill must be worked out and brought to automaticity. Let’s make an analogy that is understandable to most adults. Perhaps there are people among your friends who received their licenses long before they purchased a car. Most of them have to learn to drive a vehicle again to “refresh” their driving skills. Imagine that before going to school, a child not only needs to learn to read again, but also needs to relearn.
  2. The school curriculum is focused on the traditional method of teaching reading. Therefore, a significant drawback of the methodology is the difference, and a very significant one, from the generally accepted method of teaching. A child who has mastered reading by syllables does not understand the principles of syllable and word formation - how letters that sound a certain way are formed into syllables that sound differently. It’s hard for him to sort words into letters. Problems arise with morphemic parsing of words.
  3. Another disadvantage is the swallowing of endings and incorrect pronunciation of words by many children taught to read using this method. This is noted by many speech therapists and psychologists. Usually the first phrase from an experienced specialist to whom parents turn to with such problems is the question: “Did you learn to read from Zaitsev?”

To summarize, we can state the following: the method is not ideal and has significant drawbacks that affect the further study of the Russian language. What the baby will avoid at the initial stage (the skill of connecting letters and syllables) will still have to be mastered later, while relearning! Did you know that this is much harder than learning from scratch?

According to the postulates of this method, children master the principles of adding syllables from letters, and words from syllables.

The problem with this method is that there are no step-by-step instructions that take into account the basic mechanisms of a child’s learning. Typically, a parent takes one of the many primers and tries to teach a child to read, often without knowing or understanding the principles of teaching children.

Where does the development of children's giftedness begin?

A gifted child requires increased attention from parents and teachers. In this case, special conditions are necessary for the development of children's intelligence. It is important to surround him with objects necessary to satisfy curiosity and show ingenuity. The main factor in development is the support coming from parents and teachers. You cannot suppress the child’s initiative and creativity, strictly instruct him and dictate what to do.

In addition, it is necessary to select a competent teacher who can create an individual program for the child. The full development of children's thinking with a school teacher who sets the same requirements for everyone may not lead to the development of children's giftedness.

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